The grammatical category of a word according to its position or function in the sentence. Arabic exhibits three cases:
1. the nominative case is called الرفع (al-raf‘) and the noun/adjective/verb in the case is called ٱلْمَرْفُوعُ (al-marfū‘),
2. the accusative case is called النصب (an-naṣb) and the noun/adjective/verb in the case is called ٱلْمَنْصُوب (al-manṣūb)
3. the genitive case is called الجر (al-jarr) and the noun/adjective in the case is called ٱلْمَجْرُورُ (al-majrūr)
4. the zero-case / sukūn case is called الجزم (al-jazm) and the verb in the case is called ُالْمَجْزُوم (al-majzūm)
which are reflected in the respective case endings.
For more information see under the respective cases.